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50,000 YA. The Homo neanderthalensis skull was discovered by A. and J. Bouyssomie and J. Bonneval in 1908 in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France. It was the most complete Neanderthal skull found at the time. Called the "old man," this individual clearly lived a long time, having much pathology, such as the declined tooth sockets in the molar region and severe arthritis in the neck. Despite his very large brain capacity (over 1,600 cc), early descriptions by Boule declared him to be primitive, leading to the term "Neanderthal" to be synonymous with brutality for decades. More recently, however, many consider Neanderthal to have been a highly successful and social species with many of its physical features, such as low cranial vault and projected face, due to adaptations to cold weather. This cranium is representative of many fossil remains of Neanderthals found throughout present-day Europe.
Information Courtesy of Bone Clones